Drug addiction has been described as an epidemic that is consuming the country. The word “epidemic” is not far off the mark. Once considered nothing more than a bad habit, doctors and scientists now understand it as a disease that affects both the mind and the body.
- Today there are over 27 million people addicted to drugs in the United States
It is a chronic disease with strong genetic components. It requires active, lifelong participation by recovering addicts in some kind relapse prevention therapy. Once the disease develops in vulnerable individuals, it needs to be addressed and treated in the same way any chronic disease needs treatment.
Just like diabetic or heart disease patients suffer worsening symptoms if they do not take medication and adhere to healthy lifestyle choices, addicts will also suffer the same consequences if they do not endeavor to avoid people and situations that trigger cravings and relapse.
- It is a chronic disease characterized by drug seeking and use that is compulsive, or difficult to control, despite harmful consequences.
All drugs alter the brain chemistry.
- It over-stimulates the reward circuit by flooding it with dopamine, creating the sensation of a high feeling. In the long term, this can permanently alter the way the brain works.The human brain requires specific chemicals within the body in order to function relatively normally.
- Since 2001, prescription drug overdose deaths have increased from 10,000 per year to 30,000 per year
- Nearly 20,000 people died in 2014 from overdosing on prescription opioids (pain pills)
- In 2001, 2000 people died from overdosing on heroin. In 2014, 12,000 heroin addicts died from overdosing on heroin
- Cocaine overdose deaths spiked in 2006 at almost 8000 and has since decreased slightly to 5500 in 2014
- Drug overdoses the number of men dying from a drug overdose is consistently higher than women
Including medical costs, drug addiction incurs a cost of roughly $700 billion a year in the United States. Approximately $500 billion of that cost is due to alcohol and smoking addiction, while about $200 billion is due to illegal drugs.
In terms of treatment, alcohol treatment represents close to 25% of all admissions to rehabilitation facilities. Marijuana and heroin are a close second and third at 17% and 14%, respectively. Nearly 1/3rd of all admissions are individuals in their 20s.
Finally, illicit drug use has stayed steady or is increasing in all segments of the population in the United States. As of 2013, roughly 24.6 million Americans aged 12 or older had used an illicit drug in the last month. This was 9.4 percent of the population and represented a roughly 13% increase since 2002.
Substance addiction is characterized by the following:
- The addict cannot abstain from using drugs or alcohol
- The addict suffers severe impairment of behavioral and impulse control
- The addict denies or is unable to recognize significant problems affecting their life
- The addict presents dysfunction and/or distorted emotional responses
Every single drug produces different effects in the user, which makes it difficult to generalize effects across all drugs, though there are a few effects that are relatively common:
- Most drug users will gain tolerance to the drug as they become physically dependent. As a result, drug users require greater quantities more frequently to obtain the same results they felt from small quantities early during use.
- Most drugs alter the psyche of the user in some way that reduces inhibitions, increases willingness to take risks, decreases cognitive function, increases aggressiveness, or increases paranoia.
- As a result, drug users are highly more likely to engage in criminal activity to obtain drugs after addiction than they were before.
Most drugs have dangerous physical and psychological side effects that can cause long term damage or death when used frequently in high doses. People addicted to the drug rarely show concern over these dangerous side effects
Since 2006, heroin use among young adults has more than doubled, partly due to rampant prescription opioid addiction and partly due to heroin’s easy availability and cheapness. Opium production in Mexico rose 50 percent in 2014 in response to America’s uncontrollable demand for for heroin and poppy cultivation globally reached its highest level in 80 years between 2012 and 2013.
One of the reasons thought to have fueled the heroin epidemic is the inability for millions of prescription drug addicts in the U.S. to legally access prescription painkillers after their doctors stopped writing prescriptions for them. In fact, when Florida saw spikes in prescription drug abuse a few years ago, they decided to crackdown on “pill mills” operating in Florida.
Although deaths from prescription drug abuse in Florida have declined since closing down hundreds of pill mills, deaths from heroin increased, primarily because heroin is incredibly cheap in Florida and throughout the U.S. Mexican drug lords are now flooding the area with heroin after discovering how the pill crackdown is driving addicts to find other drugs to satisfy their addiction.
- According to the CDC, prescription drug abuse has been officially declared an epidemic in the U.S.
Marijuana is the most abused drug in the world and remains popular because it is easy to grow, cheap to buy and readily available. Marijuana contains a compound called THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) that gives users a sense of euphoria, heightened awareness and well-being.
Because drug addicts often experiment with marijuana before using harder drugs, marijuana is called the “gateway drug”. A 2015 study involving over 6000 participants found “a large proportion of individuals who use cannabis go on to use other illegal drugs”.
Crystal meth’s street names–“crank”, “speed” and “ice”–stem from its strong stimulant properties. Using meth one time may cause addiction because its effect on the brain is so immediate and intense. Injected or smoked, meth keeps the user high for several hours. Euphoria, hyper-vigilance, talkativeness, aggression and agitation are just a few of the dangerous side effects of taking meth.
Meth production and use is highest in rural areas of several Midwestern states. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency reports seizing over 1400 meth labs in Indiana, nearly 1000 meth-making sites in Missouri, 936 meth labs in Ohio and 960 meth labs in Tennessee between 2004 and 2014. However, due to the these states offering hundreds of miles of sparsely populated, densely wooded areas to meth producers an addicts, local law enforcement suspects twice as many meth labs exist that will never be found.
There are lots of treatment options available, from going cold turkey to enrolling in a medically assisted detoxification program. In general, when it comes to drug addiction treatment, the more support a patient gets the better. Medically supported rehabilitation centers average at about a 30% success rate, counting success as completion of the program without relapse for at least a year. Comparatively, 12-step programs only see about a 10% success rate and going cold turkey only has about a 5% success rate.
The numbers are consistent across all types of drugs, both legal and illegal. Patients that want to recover and are given frequent support both during detoxification and while they are attempting to return to a normal life, are significantly more likely to succeed than those that don’t want to recover or don’t have a strong support network.
Knowing the signs of addiction could save someone’s life. In order to combat addiction, you must first identify that somebody has an addiction, whether that person is you, a family member, a close friend, a co-worker, or someone else.
- If you know someone who is in financial disarray, even though it seems they shouldn’t be, addiction may be the culprit
Addiction is a compulsion that often overwhelms the logic centers of the brain. That is why many of the signs of addiction are a result of poor decision making. However, not all poor decisions caused by physiological changes is a result of addiction.
Periodic behavioral changes are a common sign of mood swings caused by withdrawal symptoms. When the amount of the substance in the person drops below a certain threshold, they experience mental withdrawal symptoms that often manifest as waspishness, depression, resentment, anger, and poor focus. If this type of behavior seems apparent cyclically in a person, they probably have an addiction.
When a person wants more painkillers, they often go through multiple doctors until one prescribes a higher dose or stronger painkiller.
Many of the above signs apply to identifying painkiller addiction, but there are also additional signs that are specific to painkiller addiction that you should watch for if you have concerns.
- If that person still can’t get a good enough high, they often will ignore doctor recommendations and take the prescribed painkiller at higher doses.
Stashes and Overuse
Not all addiction is of illegal substances like cocaine or meth. Often addiction is for something legal like alcohol. With these addictions, it is often easy to identify warning signs simply by looking for excessive stashes of the substance in question or recognizing excessive use of the substance. A glass of wine a day isn’t that big a deal. A glass of wine with every meal and another for dessert is probably a problem.
Obtaining Alternate Sources
Since the doctor prescription isn’t going to last when overused, people addicted to painkillers often get painkillers from alternate sources like;
- online stores
- the streets
- stealing from the medicine cabinet of relatives or friends
- doctor shopping
Unusual Patterns of Physical Ailments
When the substance drops below a certain threshold, physical withdrawal symptoms may also manifest in addition to mental withdrawal symptoms. Common physical withdrawal symptoms are headaches, body temperature changes, shaking, and increased or decreased appetite. Just like with mental symptoms, if you recognize cyclical symptoms, addiction is likely.
There are number of ways that a person with an addiction may make self-harming decisions. The most common way is financially. An addict will usually spend more than they can afford in order to maintain an adequate supply of whatever they are addicted to. In fact, an addict is even likely to spend money that should be going towards essentials like rent or food.
Another common dangerous decision made by addicts is the decision to engage in criminal behavior in order to either get money or to get the substance directly. If you know someone has suddenly started engaging in petty theft, addiction may be at fault.
Other self-harming decisions made by addicts are taking unnecessary risks, sacrificing prized possessions or hobbies, and allowing bad influences to have greater sway over their lives, because they share a common addiction.
Secrecy and Social Isolation
Many addicts are actually aware that they have a problem, at least to some degree. And due to societal pressure, many are even ashamed of it. Unfortunately, rather than confronting the problem, most addicts choose to hide the activity due to the shame, which leads to withdrawing from social life. If a friend or family member suddenly becomes secretive or less accessible, be on the look out for addiction.
Some are caused by things like puberty or even regular hormonal irregularities. That is why these signs are good indicators of addiction, especially when multiple are present, but should not be treated as proof without confirmation. The first step to dealing with a problem is acknowledging that there is a problem in the first place. This is especially true for addiction.
Thankfully, while it may take a trained professional to fully diagnose and treat an addiction, usually just about anyone can identify the warning signs and symptoms of addiction, thus allowing them to take the next steps in combating it. If you witness any of the following signs of addiction in a person, you are reasonable to suspect addiction. If you witness multiple of these signs, you can be almost certain of addiction and should take immediate steps to provide assistance or relief